Saturday Brain Storming Thought (162) 23/04/2022


Project affected person (PAP) means the people directly affected by land acquisition for a community project through loss of part or all of their assets whether temporarily or permanently including land, houses, other structures, businesses, crops/trees, or other types of assets

Categories of PAP

1) Directly affected by the project

Directly affected PAPs include those whose lands and/or structures are fully or partially acquired for the project

a) owners

b) using land with no ownership like agriculture, residential tenants, labor working on lands, and commercial establishments

c) possible APs without land titles or ownership rights

Landless/wage laborers
Squatters and venders
Indigenous or tribal people
Women and especially female heads of household

2) Indirectly affected PAPs

a) loss of access to CPR and public utilities

b) host area population

Current and future projects

These are the ones, which are yet to be implemented and are at the conceptual stage

Old and executed projects

These are many projects, which are implemented with no provisions for the resettlement and rehabilitation of the project affected communities

An estimated 21.3 million people have been displaced for various projects from 1950-to 1990 and of this 75% are yet to be resettled

Techniques and approaches adopted of the identification of PAP

1) Census-based survey

2) verification of project records

3) verification of records of rights/Land records

a) superimposing the project design on the Cadastral map

b) verification of land records at field level through contacting actual owners

c) contacting village administrative officer/sarpanch etc

4) verification of electoral and public utility records

Approaches and techniques for Identification of indirectly affected PAPs

1) public/village meeting

a) demography

b) occupational pattern

c) institutional arrangements and social security

d) infrastructure, resources, and manpower
e) needs, problems, priorities, and opportunity

f) general awareness level

2) Walkover survey

This exercise will provide information about

a) land use pattern

b) cropping pattern

c) soil and tree species

d) potential for area development

3) Social mapping

The purposes of social mapping are

a) to gain an understanding of the physical layout of the village and the spatial distribution of social groups

b) to understand the access of different social groups to infrastructure and basic services

c) to gather information on village demography, land distribution patterns among various social and economical groups, occupational patterns, quality of human resources, infrastructure facilities available and required

d) to mobilize the community for participatory planning

4) Resource mapping

a) nature/types of resources available and used in the village

b) ownership pattern of the resources

c) infrastructure available to use the resources

d) implication for planning

Cadastral Map

A map showing property boundaries, subdivision lines, buildings,s, and related details


The statistical study of human populations with reference to size and density, distribution, and vital statistics

Resettlement and rehabilitation of PAP

Formulating a comprehensive R&R plan in consultation with stakeholders including PAPs and the respective district administration

R&R package for PAPs comprises the following

1) compensation for land, houses, shops, and other properties, etc

2) homestead land

3) transportation charges for household items, cattle, etc

4) construction of the house

5) Solatium charges

6) financial assistance for construction of cattle shed or poultry farm

7) agricultural land depending on availability or landless grant

8) subsidy for seeds/fertilizers/land development

9) development of public health centers, schools, community centers,s, etc

10) provision of basic amenities like road, drinking water, electricity, medical, etc

11) vocational training to develop entrepreneurial skills

12) preferences in allotment of shops in NHPCs shopping complex

13) special measures for scheduled tribes

14) renovation/relocation of religious structures or structures of archaeological importance

Meaning of Homestead

A house and adjoining land designated by the owner as his or her fixed residence and exempt under the homestead laws from seizure and forced sale for debts

Objectives of National R&R Policy

1) to minimize displacement and to promise, as far as possible, non-displacement or least-displacing alternatives

2) to ensure an adequate rehabilitation package and expeditious implementation of the rehabilitation process with the active participation of the affected families

3) to ensure that special care is taken for protecting the rights of the weaker sections of society, especially members of SC & ST, and to create obligations on the state for their treatment with concern and sensitivity

4) to provide a better standard of living, making a concerted effort for providing sustainable income to the affected families

5) to integrate rehabilitation concerns into the development, planning, and implementation process

6) where displacement is on account of land acquisition, to facilitate the harmonious relationship between the requiring body and affected families through mutual cooperation

Major issues for PAPs

1) resettlement increases the poverty of the tribal due to loss of land, livelihood, food, insecurity, jobs, skills

2) loss of identity of individuals

3) loss of connection between the people and the environment

Appointment of commissioner for R&R

The state government shall appoint an officer of the rank of commissioner or secretory of that government for R&R of affected families

Purpose of Resettlement

The selection and transfer of refugees from a state in which they have sought protection to a third state which has agreed to admit them as refugees with permanent residence status

Review of R&R scheme

The Collector shall review the draft scheme submitted under sub-section (6) of section 17 by the administrator with the R&R Committee at the project level under section 46(2)

R&R Policy

R&R policies are prepared after a thorough analysis of the needs and expectations of the local population and their cultural & social aspirations

The overall objective is to ensure improvement in the standard of living of project affected families after resettlement

Compiled by:-

Avinash Kulkarni

Chartered Engineer, Govt Regd Valuer, IBBI Regd Valuer


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