Saturday Brain Storming Thought (106) 27/03/2021

Social Impact Assessment (SIA)

Social impact assessment is a methodology to review the social effects of infrastructure projects and other development interventions

SIA is used to predict and mitigate negative impacts and identify opportunities to enhance benefits for local communities and broader society

Meaning of SIA

SIA is a process of research, planning and the management of social change or consequences (Positive or negative, intended or unintended) arising from policies, plans, developments and projects

Importance of SIA

According to the right to fair compensation and transparency in land acquisition rehabilitation and resettlement (RFCTLARR) Act 2013, it is mandetory to conduct SIA and prepare a social impact management plan (SMP) for acquisition of land by government for its own use, hold and control

Need of SIA

1) To focus on the key elements of the human environment related to the proposed action, program or policy

2) SIA provide quality information for use in decision – making

3) SIA ensure that any environmental justice issues are fully described and analysed

4) use of research design and databases established for SIA should provide the basis for monitoring and evaluating the actual impacts of chosen alternative (project)

Significance of SIA

1) the core focus of an SIA is on the important impacts of projects and developments beyond the impacts of natural resources

2) it ensure minimal impact on people’s ways of life due to any project or policy

3) SIA is based upon sound and replicable scientific research concepts and methods

4) SIA must look not only at social issues but also at the environmental impacts and their interactions

5) by mandating SIA government aims to decrease social unrest and ensure compensation to affected communities

6) SIA help in resolving issues like land acquisition and speed up the execution of development projects

7) it ensure that locals receive proper resettlement packages and those developers constructively engage with local communities

8) SIA help in development of the country and lead to sustainable growth and employment in the region through speedy completion of projects

9) SIA help government and judiciary to save resources and time by avoiding unnecessary litigations as assessment and compensation for any project is done beforehand

Contents in SIA

1) whether the proposed acquisition serves public purpose

2) the number of families affected and number of families likely to be displaced

3) the extent of public and private lands, house settlement etc likely to be affected

4) whether the area of land to be acquired is absolutely minimum

5) whether alternative suitable land is available and where it is available

6) what is the cost of social impact as against the benefits of the project

SIA process

1) scoping

2) baseline analysis

3) impact assessment

4) impact mitigation and benefit enhancement

5) SIA report including social impact management plan (SIMP)

6) SIMP implementation

7) monitoring

8) review and update

Social impact strategies

These are designed to improve an organization’s overall mission – not just it’s brand identity

They serves as concrete and measurable plans that have quantifiable business outcome and definitive societal impacts

Social impact measurement

It is a process of understanding how much social change occured and can be attributed to an organization’s activities

Real impact measurement is about integrating stakeholder voice to understand community outcome over a long time

Impact analysis document

1) brief description of an issue

2) explain or show an example of how the defect is causing failure and/or inefficiency

3) include an estimate of complexity

4) include an estimate of cost and time for a fix

5) functionality to be tested

6) list down the new test cases created for the change

Objectives of SIA

1) analyze how development proposals affect people

2) identify and mitigate adverse impacts

3) enhance benefits of the developmental proposals

4) help manage social change

5) project area assessment – reconnaissance survey

6) preliminary estimate of impacts – category / extent

7) field planning -,team building / coordination planning

8) time and fund allocation

SIA tools

1) unstructured checklists

2) structured questionnaires

SIA type of contacts

1) individual conversational interviews

2) community level discussions

3) institutional level discussions

SIA project documentation

1) it is further stipulated that the notification under section 11 (earlier section 4) shall also contain, along with other matters, the summary of the report of SIA

2) the SIA has thus become the prerequisite for the preliminary notification that the land is likely to be needed for public purposes

3) section 2(3) also stipulates that a private company purchasers (by private negotiations) land exceeding the prescribed limit in urban areas or requests govt for acquisition, the provisions relating rehabilitation and resettlement shall apply

SIA variables

1) population change

2) influx of (temporary) workers

3) presence of seasonal residents

4) Dislocation/Relocation of families

5) changes in composition

Compiled by:-

Er. Avinash Kulkarni

Chartered Engineer
Govt Regd Valuer
IBBI Regd Valuer