Guidelines for Structural Audit of Building

*Guidelines for Structural Audit of Building*

Every owner or occupier of a building is responsible to carry out Structural Audit by competent
Structural Engineer when age of building is more than 30 years.

Structural Engineer should certify that building is fit for human habitation.

Structural Stability certificate shall be submitted within one year from period of expiry of 30 years

Such Stability certificate should be submitted after every 10 years from 30 years age of building
If Structural Engineer recommends any Corrective repairs should be carried out by owner or occupier

If owner or occupier fails to carry out corrective repairs for securing structural stability, within a period
of 6 months from the date of report of Structural Engineer, shall be punished with fine

Commissioner may carry out such corrective measures and the expenses incurred should be paid by
owner or occupier within 30 days as arrears of property tax.

*ITEMS TO BE CONSIDERED FOR STRUCTURAL AUDIT*

Preliminary Considerations
Initial Inspection
Items to specifically ask of building owner or occupier
Description of building
Reinforced concrete items
Structural steel items
Cast iron members
External elevations
Roof external
Sheet roofing
Internal conditions
Under floor void
Roof space
Wood work
Rainwater pipes and gutters
Surrounds
Drainage
Services
Conclusions

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS

Check the brief and the clients requirement
Address of property ( Ordinance Survey reference )
Name of client & address
Name of other professional advisers
Date of inspection & weather condition at the time of inspection
Condition of building, existing reports and relevant documents
Executed plans, structural design, estimates and tender including modifications
Restricted liability
Building life assumed by designer
Soil parameter and bearing capacity of soil
Contour map & plinth levels of building

INITIAL INSPECTION

Walk round property, both internally and externally, to get feel of building and site
Stand back & have a good look at the building for alignment, especially roofs, window frames, doors etc
Any restriction on inspection
Overloading or under loading of building internally and externally
Any abnormal exposure problems likely – roof cladding etc Problems due to orientation
Subsoil examination top soil possible indication
Nearby similar buildings for any obvious common faults
Safety considerations
Any hidden areas
Stability of building in general

ITEMS SPECIFICALLY ASK TO BUILDING OWNERS

Building Life
Knowledge of any alterations carried out, i.e. roof space conversion, wall removal
Knowledge of any past major remedial work
Removal of trees or large shrubs recently
Problems of heat loss, drains, services, access
Sewers / drains connection to main
Tenure of the property
Inspection by Fire officer
Problems with health and safety regulations

DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING

Type of building i.e. shed, multistory, detached, semi detached or terraced
Loft or basement and number of stories
Approximate age of building
General description of materials of construction. Roof type, external wall, external rendering or
weather boarding etc
Try & establish the principal structural arrangement i.e. concrete frame, load bearing brickwork etc
Stability or progressive collapse
Details of any extensions or additions with statuary approvals Ask and record replies
Check the building is close to any tree, sloping ground, streams or underground culverts
Building recently decorated i.e. cladding for hide anything

REINFORCED CONCRETE ITEMS

Sign of concrete spalling off, Reinforcement corrosion, Cover adequacy, carbonation
Abnormal differential sagging / cracking of concrete
Hairline cracks – Thermal, corrosion, shrinkage
Getting moisture in the crack
Damp or humid atmosphere
General conditions of sealants between principal members
Crack at beam and column connection
Crack in slabs at column heads particularly top surfaces
Spalling of edges of corbels, nibs etc
Crack pattern and structural movement if any
RCC – sulphate attack / cover to steel
Corrosive environmental conditions
Problems of calcium chloride
Appreciable remedial work required – what & when

STRUCTURAL STEEL ITEMS

Protection from corrosion
Checking at base of stanchions and end of built – in members
Deflection or twisting of members
Checking bearing positions for corrosion and seating
Adequate lateral stability of member
Stability of steel frame and checking of bracing & buttressing
Checking of bolt connection – single – tight – missing – gaps in connection, tearing or straining
Modification of ties or struts, lateral loads on struts
Cannabalision of steelwork
Contribution of cladding to stability
Buckling of structural plate work
Overall pattern of distortion
Abnormal loads hung from roof members
Signs of extensive defects in welded joints
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Effective Fire protection

CAST IRON MEMBERS

Evidence of any eccentric loading
Damage due to vehicle impact
Loads hanging from cast iron beams
Eccentricity of hollow cores in columns
Welding attempts
Column verticality
Using of hollow cast iron columns as rainwater pipes
General state of dilapidation
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when

EXTERNAL ELEVATIONS

Crack pattern. Old age or recentness of crack
Misalignment of window sills, bbm or masonry bedding
Crack type – settlement / heave, thermal, shrinkage, excessive loading, rusting steelwork built-in
Plumbness of wall internally & externally. Check bulginess
Movement of external wall
Rusted brick ties or no ties
Differential movement, major remedial work required, Verticality of corners, lateral restraint of wall
Lintel sag crack
Pointing condition
Condition and stability of projecting balconies
Comment on general standard of workmanship
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Filling of cavity or other wall insulation
Properness of DPC, Detoriation of materials below DPC, i.e. absorption type

ROOF EXTERNAL

Undertaking of inspection, safety considerations
Roof covering of convential materials
Breaking, shaled or missing of roof tiles
Roof spread at eaves pushing out brickwork
Roof sagging due to purlin deflection
Adequate Ventilation & sagging of roof
Adequate slope of roof to suit construction
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Sunlight deterioration, Solar protection, paint, clipping etc

SHEET ROOFING

Brittleness, Safe access, Cracks – damageness – Repairs of sheets
Roof angle and sealing requirement
Sagging or twisting of purlin
Sagging of insulation boarding
Rusting fixing bolts / caps – check tightness
Overlaps & fixing of sheets
Buckling, rusting & distortion of sheets
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Adequacy of guters & downpipes – Overflows
Surface durability – Paint, plastic covering, galvanizing, bitumastic etc
Exposure problem
Insulation adequacy
Type of asbestos in sheeting

INTERNAL CONDITION

Logical Inspection, safety access
Marking of crack pattern particularly ceiling crack
Outside bulges & cracks – checking from inside
Internal cracking & dampness of wall
Sulphate attack – settlement
Edges of skirting’s – bumps or hollow
Load spanning direction
Unevenness of walls
Examination of door – window frames
Damp area checking – kitchen, bath, canteen, basement
Checking of false and suspended ceilings
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when

UNDERFLOOR VOIDS

Watching of personal safety in confined areas – height restriction, lack of breathable air
Comment on general standard and condition of void
Checking of supports of joists / spans
Depth of foundation below void level
Detoraition of RCC work
Oversite concrete
Wet or damp areas on void surfaces & its reasons
Requirement of pointing or rebuilding of brickwork
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Soil gases
General state, support and tidiness of wiring and other services items

ROOF SPACE

External evidence suggesting possible internal problems
Safe Access to all areas
Excessiveness of loadings
Checking of Verticality of trussed rafters
Rusting & spalling of members
Checking joints, bracing etc of roof trusses
Deformation or undersized of purlins / rafters
Soundness of rafter & purlin connection
Soundness of brickwork below truss
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Suitable and adequate insulation
Evidence of access for birds / animals
General standard and condition of areas – ventilation

WOOD WORK

Comment on the general standard of external timber
Checking – Out of plumbness & square of floor & windows
Checking of joints
Consideration of Replacement of timber in future
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Checking of Painting of woodwork
Repairs if required

RAINWATER PIPES AND GUTTERS

Material type
Condition of material
Indication of leaks, blockages & overflowing etc
Staining of cladding
Clearness of gullies, Backfill on gutters
Corrosion protection of gutters & pipes
Checking of internal surfaces of gutters
Checking of gaps between edge of roof & gutters
Local damage to walls
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when

SURROUNDS

Checking of roadways, parking areas, paths, drives etc
Localized settlement
Any trees or shrubs likely to cause problems
Checking of condition of detached sheds, garages etc
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when
Condition and ownership of boundary walls, fences etc
Checking of street lighting, drainage
Any rights of way apparent

DRAINAGE

Checking the attachment of drainage to main system or septic tank
Manholes – condition, depth, flow, clearness
Any trees or large bushes nearby & checking of rot damages
Known problem listing
Health risk
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when

SERVICES

Checking of General standard of fixtures & fittings
Services – gas, electricity, water, telephone, security system etc
Last Services of installation
Operativeness of system
Evidence of repairs
Checking of insulation
Age & condition of wiring & fitting of electric services
Location of master valves / switches
Any appreciable remedial work requirement, what & when

CONCLUSIONS

Explanation to client regarding unableness of inspection
Informing to client regarding specialist if required
Possibility of problems arising in the near future
Structural alteration if required
Original purpose of building and any loading implications
General impression of degree of maintenance
Urgent work required from safety point
Enquiry from local authority with future planning
Final look on observations

Compiled by

Avinash kulkarni

Chartered Engineer
Govt Approved Valuer
IBBI Regd Valuer

Guidelines for Structural Audit of Building

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